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Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) – New Success Mantra

By: Shurlly Tiwari, HR faculty (ISME)

Technology is taking over in corporate world; most of the organisations are open and adopting new technology, It has become the requirement for the employees to upskill themselves on new technologies.
But, everybody is not a technology person, and it becomes difficult for the people, who are not technology savvy.

What is TAM?
The technology acceptance model (TAM) is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it,
Perceived usefulness (PU) – This was defined by Fred Davis as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance“.
Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) – Davis defined this as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort” (Davis 1989).
The TAM has been continuously studied and expanded—the two major upgrades being the TAM 2 (Venkatesh & Davis 2000 & Venkatesh 2000) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (or UTAUTVenkatesh et al. 2003).
TAM is a model used to analyse the use of technology,

Challenges of Industry:

Industry is facing challenges due to semi-skilled and unskilled work force , in today’s world workforce need to be updated and upskilled to meet the challenges .Industry encounters several challenges due to lack of skills like :  High staff turnover, Challenge in creating innovative teams , formation of Silos , and problems with employee engagement.
Research tells that 35% of workforce needs to be changed by 2020; there is a constant need to ensure that our workforce is up to date and is updated on the latest trends of the industry. Knowledge and skills is a big challenge facing managers of research data tells that, it takes 33% of an employee’s annual salary to replace them (that goes up to a whopping 400% for expert senior staff).
Usefulness of TAM: Tam is  extensively   used in health care, e-commerce, technological field, geographical context.
In the upcoming research by Venkatesh and Davis, it was found that TAM also influence social norms like image of the employee, Cognitive instrumental processes, (job output, quality of work, perceived ease of use).

Conditions applied:

TAM is the need of the hour; it is the new mantra of Success. It not only helps in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the employees but also it helps in the productivity of the organisation. There are several models, which enhances the importance of TAM in increasing the collaborative learning, which directly and indirectly help in developing the culture of the organisation.

Benefits of TAM:

TAM is one of the models  which was used for the technological upgradation of the employees. According to psychological theory, TAM has evolved to become a key model in understanding predictors of human behavior toward potential acceptance or rejection of technology.
 Social media is “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web and that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010,p.61). According to Ka plan and Haenlein (2010, p.60),there are six types of social media: (1) “collaborative projects” (2) “blogs” ,(3) “content communities” (4) “social network sites”; (5) “virtual game worlds” and (6) “virtual social worlds”.
Social network sites Boyd and Ellison(2007,p.211) define SNSs as a “web-based services that allow individuals to:  construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system;  articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection with ; and  view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.
Legris et al.[6] claim that, together, TAM and TAM2 account for only 40% of a technological system’s use. A study conducted by Okafor, D. J., Nico, M. & Azman, B. B. (2016) discovered that perceived ease of use doesn’t have any influence on the adoption of multimedia online technologies for Malaysian SMEs. The answers from the participants in this study suggest that, for them, perceived ease of use was not indicative of their behavioural intention to adopt multimedia online technologies (MOT) in the future. Instead of not adopting MOT, if they are complicated some participants said they are willing to learn it or practice more.
Since Technology and its acceptance has become a big thing in the world, Mangement students should develop an attitude to learn and imbibe this model. Management institutes should develop this model TAM in their curriculum or faculty members should develop the TAM methods to teach students fopr example : simulation technique etc.
·         ubramanian, G. H. (1994), “A replication of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use measurement”, Decision Sciences, 25 (5/6): 863–873
·         Szajna, B. (1994), “Software evaluation and choice: predictive evaluation of the Technology Acceptance Instrument”, MIS Quarterly, 18 (3): 319–324, doi:10.2307/249621
·         Tornatzky, L. G.; Klein, R. J. (1982), “Innovation characteristics and innovation adoption-implementation: A meta-analysis of findings”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, EM-29: 28–45, doi:10.1109/tem.1982.6447463
·         Venkatesh, V.; Davis, F. D. (2000), “A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies”, Management Science, 46 (2): 186–204, doi:10.1287/mnsc.
·         Venkatesh, V. (2000), “Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating control, intrinsic motivation, and emotion into the technology acceptance model”, Information Systems Research, 11 (4), pp. 342–365
·         Venkatesh, V.; Morris, M. G.; Davis, G. B.; Davis, F. D. (2003), “User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view” (PDF), MIS Quarterly, 27 (3): 425–478
·         Venkatesh, V.; Bala, H. (2008), “Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a Research Agenda on Interventions”, Decision Sciences, 39 (2): 273–315, doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.2008.00192.x