NEW TEACHING TECHNIQUES

Dr. Ramesh.G.Tagat *
·         Education Process extends from primary level to post-graduation and beyond.
·         The major components of the education process are to provide ‘knowledge’ and to impart ‘practical skills’ relevant to chosen domains.
·         The set of Teaching Techniques is a Continuum ranging from Teaching at one extreme to Learning at the other.  The mid path reflects the various configurations of teaching and learning progressively.
·         In the traditional sense, Teaching largely denotes one–way communication of knowledge and skills from Teacher to Taught
·         Learning is thinking into one’s own understanding a new idea or truth or working into habit a new art or skill.
·         The general format of Education as a Process is given in Diagram below
_________________________Environment_____________________________________
Focus Next  Level
                 _________________________________________________________________________
·         This process is not an isolated Static process but Dynamic as an  integral part of the changing environment. Continuous process focusing on next level.
·         Environment is made up of Socio-Cultural, Politico-Legal, Economic, Demographic and  Technology  subsystems interfacing each other.
·         Of late, the major driver of this changing environment has been the fast development of Information and Communication Technology with the advent of Computer and the Internet.
·         Some of the major resultant changes are
          Digital Convergence- –Pervasive
          Globalization— Broadening the Perspective
          Satellite  Technology— Communication Access
          Mobile and Cloud  Computing— Open Outsourcing
          Knowledge Economy — Digitally Networked World
          Virtual Communications—Real Time Activities
__________________________________________________________________________________
* Professor (Rtd), Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, Academic Mentor and Professor,
   International School of  Management Excellence, Bangalore
·         In line with this changing technology, the education  process is no more location tied but has become spatial-
·         Brick and Mortar Class Room to Online Direct to Home Distance Education and several variants of them.
·         It has triggered Innovative and  Creative Activities based on Lateral Thinking, Cross-Cultural Interaction etc
Technology in Education and Educational Technology
·         In this context, the impact of technology has led to two paradigms, ‘Technology in Education’ and ‘Educational Technology’.
·         Technology in Education Paradigm was the first phase when it started to emerge as a recognised discipline during the 1960s and 1970’s in our country.  This model embraced all possible means by which information could be presented, and had two main aspects, namely ‘Hardware’ and ‘Software’.
·         The Hardware side was concerned with the actual equipment – overhead projectors, slide projectors, tape recorders, television equipment, computers, etc.
·         The Software side, on the other hand, was concerned with the various things that were used in conjunction with this equipment -overhead transparencies, slides, audiotapes, videotapes, computer programs, and so on.
·         However, at this stage in the development of educational technology, many people became aware that there was much in education which could be improved by thinking more carefully about all aspects of the design of teaching/learning situations.
·          Such considerations led to a new, broader interpretation of ‘educational technology’ as the entire technology of education rather than the use of technology in education. The latter was now regarded as merely a part of the former rather than the whole field, as had previously been the case.
·         The principal role of educational technology is to help improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the teaching/learning process. Such an improvement can manifest itself in many ways, eg:
          by increasing the quality of learning, or the degree of mastery;
          by decreasing the time taken for learners to attain desired goals;
          by increasing the efficiency of teachers in terms of numbers of learners taught, without reducing the quality of learning;
          by reducing costs, without affecting quality;
          by increasing the independence of learners, and the flexibility of educational provision.
·         This brought to the fore the role of the Teacher /Faculty and his personality in terms of subject competence, perceptive and learning quotient and interactive interpersonal capability, innovative and creative abilities and research capabilities which are termed as “Intagibles” or the Mindware.
·         The interface of Hardware, Software and Mindware is shown in the Diagram below.
Interface of Hardware, Software and Mindware


·         The New Teaching Techniques, inclusive of traditional ones, have emerged out of this Educational Technology.
·         They are given below
Lecture
Lecture with Discussion
Workshops
Seminars
Brainstorming
Lateral Thinking  exercises
Case  Studies
Panel  discussion
Games
Role Playing
Worksheets
Field/Lab  experiments
Guest Speakers
Industry  Exposure
Flip Charts
Graphics
OH Transparency
Slides
Computer Projections
Multimedia/Animation
Video Tapes
You Tube
Touch Screen
Web search
Webinars
Video Conferencing


Selection Criteria
·         The selection of the set of teaching techniques depends upon the objectives and the nature of the disciplines and topics and also the size of the class.
·         The objectives could be
                                   Teacher to Student Communicati
Such methodology as lecture, storytelling, and     
demonstration
                                            Student to Teacher Communication
                     Such methods as recitation, reports, and testing
                                            Teacher with Student Communication
               Class discussion and “question and answer”
                                            Group Activity
                   Activities such as panels, buzz groups, dramas
                                            Instructive Play
                                 Educational games and toys, puppets, action songs, etc.
Size of the  Class. : Another criteria
The Table  below  depicts the categories in terms of Class Size, Teaching  Technique, Role of Teacher/Faculty and the Role of the student.
Class  Size/ Methods
Role of Teacher
Role of Students
Mass instruction
(Conventional lectures and taught lessons; film and video presentations; educational broadcasts; mass practical and studio work)
Traditional expository role; controller of all aspects of instruction process (style, content, pace, etc.)
Largely passive; virtually totally dependent on what they get from the teacher, video, demonstrator etc.
Individualised learning
(Directed study of texts, study of open-learning materials; mediated self-instruction; CBL; multimedia; assignments, projects, etc.)
Producer/manager of learning resources; tutor and guide, providing support to students when required.
Largely responsible for their own learning; individual students control their own pace of learning, depth of study, etc.
Group learning
(Buzz sessions; class discussions; seminars; group tutorials; games and simulations; group projects; etc.
Organiser of group activity; facilitator of learning experience (largely supportive role).
Largely responsible for their own learning, but also strongly dependent on one another’s preparation and interaction.
·         Finally, as the education process is dynamic, the role of the faculty also becomes dynamic in acquiring broader perspective, broadening the knowledge base and acquisition of improved competency to handle different configurations of traditional and new teaching techniques.
·         A teacher has to play different roles in different contexts conditioned by the different levels of education process and differing wavelengths of the student groups.
·          The dynamic role of the teacher is depicted in the diagram  overleaf
Community and Society
University
School/Faculty
Lecture theatre or classroom
Lecturer
Needs & interests
Lecturer’s roles
  • Learner
  • Facilitator
  • Colleague
  • Community
Assesses, plans, lectures
——————>
Student
Needs & interests
Values & feelings
Understanding & skills
Learns & provides feedback
<——————-
The advantages and  disadvantages of  each Teaching Technique are given in the accompanying articles.
Multiple Roles of the Teacher
·         The Teacher has multiple roles to play depending on the level of educational process and the wavelength of the students.
·         He/She is an Instructor, Assessor, Guide, Facilitator,Partner,  Trainer, Researcher,anda Consultant
·         More than anything Teacher is a Transformer , A Change Agent in molding the mindsets of the student to realize their futuristic dreams with ethical means.
·         He is not only a Deliverer of Quality of Education but also a Builder of Quality of Life of the future Citizens of our County.
·         Teaching is the Noblest Profession in the  world and a teacher can live up to this only with incorrigible integrity, uncompromising commitment, passionate perseverance, and a missionary zeal to serve the society at large with coveted human values.In this
    Teacher is a “ ROLE MODEL” to be cherished by his/her students and one and all in his institution, community and society.
References: 
This paper is an assimilation of relevant published materials on the  web, to provide a logical flow to my thought process on the topic.
The major sources are:
“Selecting appropriate Teaching/Learning Methods” and “Systems Approach to Teaching”:  Booklets of Gordon Brown University.
‘Teaching Techniques” , Dr. Freeman Weems III
“Teacher as a  Facilitator” Jennifer Tylee.



Dr. Ramesh G Tagat
Academic Mentor
ISME 
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